Wednesday, September 10, 2014

Words on Wednesday ~ THE MAN FROM SNOWY RIVER

The Man from Snowy River by A. B. Paterson ("The Banjo")

There was movement at the station, for the word had passed around
    That the colt from old Regret had got away,
   And had joined the wild bush horses — he was worth a thousand pound,
    So all the cracks had gathered to the fray.
   All the tried and noted riders from the stations near and far
    Had mustered at the homestead overnight,
   For the bushmen love hard riding where the wild bush horses are,
    And the stock-horse snuffs the battle with delight.

   There was Harrison, who made his pile when Pardon won the cup,
    The old man with his hair as white as snow;
   But few could ride beside him when his blood was fairly up —
    He would go wherever horse and man could go.
   And Clancy of the Overflow came down to lend a hand,
    No better horseman ever held the reins;
   For never horse could throw him while the saddle-girths would stand,
    He learnt to ride while droving on the plains.

   And one was there, a stripling on a small and weedy beast,
    He was something like a racehorse undersized,
   With a touch of Timor pony — three parts thoroughbred at least —
    And such as are by mountain horsemen prized.
   He was hard and tough and wiry — just the sort that won't say die —
    There was courage in his quick impatient tread;
   And he bore the badge of gameness in his bright and fiery eye,
    And the proud and lofty carriage of his head.

   But still so slight and weedy, one would doubt his power to stay,
    And the old man said, 'That horse will never do
   For a long and tiring gallop — lad, you'd better stop away,
    Those hills are far too rough for such as you.'
   So he waited sad and wistful — only Clancy stood his friend —
    'I think we ought to let him come,' he said;
   'I warrant he'll be with us when he's wanted at the end,
    For both his horse and he are mountain bred.

   'He hails from Snowy River, up by Kosciusko's side,
    Where the hills are twice as steep and twice as rough,
   Where a horse's hoofs strike firelight from the flint stones every stride,
    The man that holds his own is good enough.
   And the Snowy River riders on the mountains make their home,
    Where the river runs those giant hills between;
   I have seen full many horsemen since I first commenced to roam,
    But nowhere yet such horsemen have I seen.'

   So he went — they found the horses by the big mimosa clump —
    They raced away towards the mountain's brow,
   And the old man gave his orders, 'Boys, go at them from the jump,
    No use to try for fancy riding now.
   And, Clancy, you must wheel them, try and wheel them to the right.
    Ride boldly, lad, and never fear the spills,
   For never yet was rider that could keep the mob in sight,
    If once they gain the shelter of those hills.'

   So Clancy rode to wheel them — he was racing on the wing
    Where the best and boldest riders take their place,
   And he raced his stock-horse past them, and he made the ranges ring
    With the stockwhip, as he met them face to face.
   Then they halted for a moment, while he swung the dreaded lash,
    But they saw their well-loved mountain full in view,
   And they charged beneath the stockwhip with a sharp and sudden dash,
    And off into the mountain scrub they flew.

   Then fast the horsemen followed, where the gorges deep and black
    Resounded to the thunder of their tread,
   And the stockwhips woke the echoes, and they fiercely answered back
    From cliffs and crags that beetled overhead.
   And upward, ever upward, the wild horses held their way,
    Where mountain ash and kurrajong grew wide;
   And the old man muttered fiercely, 'We may bid the mob good day,
    NO man can hold them down the other side.'

   When they reached the mountain's summit, even Clancy took a pull,
    It well might make the boldest hold their breath,
   The wild hop scrub grew thickly, and the hidden ground was full
    Of wombat holes, and any slip was death.
   But the man from Snowy River let the pony have his head,
    And he swung his stockwhip round and gave a cheer,
   And he raced him down the mountain like a torrent down its bed,
    While the others stood and watched in very fear.

   He sent the flint stones flying, but the pony kept his feet,
    He cleared the fallen timber in his stride,
   And the man from Snowy River never shifted in his seat —
    It was grand to see that mountain horseman ride.
   Through the stringy barks and saplings, on the rough and broken ground,
    Down the hillside at a racing pace he went;
   And he never drew the bridle till he landed safe and sound,
    At the bottom of that terrible descent.

   He was right among the horses as they climbed the further hill,
    And the watchers on the mountain standing mute,
   Saw him ply the stockwhip fiercely, he was right among them still,
    As he raced across the clearing in pursuit.
   Then they lost him for a moment, where two mountain gullies met
    In the ranges, but a final glimpse reveals
   On a dim and distant hillside the wild horses racing yet,
    With the man from Snowy River at their heels.

   And he ran them single-handed till their sides were white with foam.
    He followed like a bloodhound on their track,
   Till they halted cowed and beaten, then he turned their heads for home,
    And alone and unassisted brought them back.
   But his hardy mountain pony he could scarcely raise a trot,
    He was blood from hip to shoulder from the spur;
   But his pluck was still undaunted, and his courage fiery hot,
    For never yet was mountain horse a cur.

   And down by Kosciusko, where the pine-clad ridges raise
    Their torn and rugged battlements on high,
   Where the air is clear as crystal, and the white stars fairly blaze
    At midnight in the cold and frosty sky,
   And where around the Overflow the reedbeds sweep and sway
    To the breezes, and the rolling plains are wide,
   The man from Snowy River is a household word to-day,
    And the stockmen tell the story of his ride.

Tuesday, September 9, 2014

Tasty Tuesday ~ Apple Charlotte

True to Word from Margaret Brown's French Cookery Book.


Take 6 large apples and chop very fine, grate the inside of a stale loaf of bread into crumbs, grate half a nutmeg, take a three-pint tin pudding-pan, line it thickly with thin-sliced buttered bread, a layer of bread crumbs, a layer of apples, and a layer of butter, composed of small pieces; continue to add till the pan is packed very tight—make the last layer of butter and sugar. Bake in a moderately hot oven two hours; serve with cream sauce. Put sugar in every layer.

Monday, September 8, 2014

Manner on Monday ~ Dinner Company Etiquette For The Guest

True to word from The Ladies' Book Of Etiquette, And Manual Of Politeness by FLORENCE HARTLEY


When you receive an invitation to join a dinner-party, answer it immediately, as, by leaving your hostess in doubt whether you intend to accept or decline her hospitality, you make it impossible for her to decide how many she must prepare for. If you accept at first, and any unforeseen event keeps you from fulfilling your engagement, write a second note, that your hostess may not wait dinner for you. Such a note, if circumstances render it necessary to write it, may be sent with perfect propriety an hour before the time appointed for dinner, though, if you are aware that you cannot attend, earlier, you must send the information in good season.

You should enter the house of your hostess from a quarter to half an hour earlier than the time appointed for dining. Proceed at once to the dressing-room, and arrange your dress and hair, and then enter the drawing-room. By going to the house too early, you may hasten or interrupt the toilet arrangements of your hostess; while, by being late, you will establish a most disagreeable association in the minds of all present, as "the lady who kept dinner waiting at Mrs. L——'s."

Immediately upon entering the parlor find your hostess, and speak to her first. It is very rude to stop to chat with other guests before greeting the lady of the house. You may bow to any one you know, in passing, but do not stop to speak. Having exchanged a few words with your hostess, turn to the other guests, unless you are the first arrival. In that case, converse with your host and hostess until others come in.

Be careful, if dinner is delayed by the tardiness of the guests, or from any other cause, that you do not show by your manner that you are aware of such delay. To look towards the door often, consult your watch, or give tokens of weariness, are all marks of ill-breeding. Your hostess will probably be sufficiently annoyed by the irregularity itself; do not add to her discomfort by allowing her to suppose that her guests perceive the deficiencies. Look over the books and pictures with an air of interest, converse cheerfully, and in every way appear as if dinner were a matter of secondary importance, (as, indeed, it should be,) compared with the pleasure of the society around you.

When the signal for dinner is given, your hostess will probably name your escort to the table. If he is a stranger, bow in acknowledgement of the introduction, take his arm, and fall into your place in the stream of guests passing from the parlor to the dining-room.

Take the seat pointed out by your hostess, or the waiter, as soon as it is offered. Each one will do this upon entering, and it prevents the confusion that will result if those first entering the room, remain standing until all the other guests come in.

When you take your seat, be careful that your chair does not stand upon the dress of the lady next you, as she may not rise at the same instant that you do, and so you risk tearing her dress.

Sit gracefully at the table; neither so close as to make your movements awkward, nor so far away as to drag your food over your dress before it reaches your mouth. It is well to carry in your pocket a small pincushion, and, having unfolded your napkin, to pin it at the belt. You may do this quietly, without its being perceived, and you will thus really save your dress. If the napkin is merely laid open upon your lap, it will be very apt to slip down, if your dress is of silk or satin, and you risk the chance of appearing again in the drawing-room with the front of your dress soiled or greased.

If, by the carelessness or awkwardness of your neighbors or the servants, you have a plate of soup, glass of wine, or any dish intended for your mouth, deposited upon your dress, do not spring up, or make any exclamation. You may wipe off the worst of the spot with your napkin, and then let it pass without further notice. If an apology is made by the unlucky perpetrator of the accident, try to set him at his ease by your own lady-like composure. He will feel sorry and awkward enough, without reproach, sullenness, or cold looks from you.

Gloves and mittens are no longer worn at table, even at the largest dinner-parties.

To make remarks upon the guests or the dishes is excessively rude.

If the conversation is general, speak loudly enough to be heard by those around you, but, at the same time, avoid raising your voice too much. If the company is very large, and you converse only with the person immediately beside you, speak in a distinct, but low tone, that you may not interrupt other couples, but carefully avoid whispering or a confidential air. Both are in excessively bad taste. To laugh in a suppressed way, has the appearance of laughing at those around you, and a loud, boisterous laugh is always unlady-like. Converse cheerfully, laugh quietly, but freely, if you will, and while you confine your attention entirely to your neighbor, still avoid any air of secrecy or mystery.

Never use an eye-glass, either to look at the persons around you or the articles upon the table.

Eat your soup quietly. To make any noise in eating it, is simply disgusting. Do not break bread into your soup. Break off small pieces and put into your mouth, if you will, but neither bite it from the roll nor break it up, and eat it from your soup-plate with a spoon.

In eating bread with meat, never dip it into the gravy on your plate, and then bite the end off. If you wish to eat it with gravy, break off a small piece, put it upon your plate, and then, with a fork, convey it to your mouth.

When helped to fish, remove, with knife and fork, all the bones, then lay down the knife, and, with a piece of bread in your left hand and a fork in your right, eat the flakes of fish.

Need I say that the knife is to cut your food with, and must never be used while eating? To put it in your mouth is a distinctive mark of low-breeding.

If you have selected what you will eat, keep the plate that is placed before you; never pass it to the persons next you, as they may have an entirely different choice of meat or vegetables.

Never attempt to touch any dish that is upon the table, but out of your reach, by stretching out your arms, leaning forward, or, still worse, standing up. Ask the waiter to hand it, if you wish for it; or, if the gentleman beside you can easily do so, you may ask him to pass it to you.

Do not press those near you to take more or other things than are upon their plate. This is the duty of the hostess, or, if the company is large, the servants will attend to it. For you to do so is officious and ill-bred.

When conversing let your knife and fork rest easily upon your plate, even if still in your hand. Avoid holding them upright. Keep your own knife, fork, and spoon solely for the articles upon your own plate. To use them for helping yourself to butter or salt, is rude in the extreme.

When you do not use the salt-spoon, sugar tongs, and butter-knife, you may be sure that those around you will conclude that you have never seen the articles, and do not know their use.

You need not fear to offend by refusing to take wine with a gentleman, even your host. If you decline gracefully, he will appreciate the delicacy which makes you refuse. If, however, you have no conscientious scruples, and are invited to take wine, bow, and merely raise the glass to your lips, then set it down again. You may thus acknowledge the courtesy, and yet avoid actually drinking the wine.

No lady should drink wine at dinner. Even if her head is strong enough to bear it, she will find her cheeks, soon after the indulgence, flushed, hot, and uncomfortable; and if the room is warm, and the dinner a long one, she will probably pay the penalty of her folly, by having a headache all the evening.

If offered any dish of which you do not wish to partake, decline it, but do not assign any reason. To object to the dish itself is an insult to your entertainers, and if you assert any reason for your own dislike it is ill-bred.

Do not bend too much forward over your food, and converse easily. To eat fast, or appear to be so much engrossed as to be unable to converse, is ill-bred; and it makes those around you suspect that you are so little accustomed to dining well, that you fear to stop eating an instant, lest you should not get enough.

It is equally ill-bred to accept every thing that is offered to you. Never take more than two vegetables; do not take a second plate of soup, pastry, or pudding. Indeed, it is best to accept but one plate of any article.

Never use a spoon for anything but liquids, and never touch anything to eat, excepting bread, celery, or fruit, with your fingers.

In the intervals which must occur between the courses, do not appear to be conscious of the lapse of time. Wear a careless air when waiting, conversing cheerfully and pleasantly, and avoid looking round the room, as if wondering what the waiters are about.

Never eat every morsel that is upon your plate; and surely no lady will ever scrape her plate, or pass the bread round it, as if to save the servants the trouble of washing it.

Take such small mouthfulls that you can always be ready for conversation, but avoid playing with your food, or partaking of it with an affectation of delicate appetite. Your hostess may suppose you despise her fare, if you appear so very choice, or eat too sparingly. If your state of health deprives you of appetite, it is bad enough for you to decline the invitation to dine out.

Never examine minutely the food before you. You insult your hostess by such a proceeding, as it looks as if you feared to find something upon the plate that should not be there.

If you find a worm on opening a nut, or in any of the fruit, hand your plate quietly, and without remark, to the waiter, and request him to bring you a clean one. Do not let others perceive the movement, or the cause of it, if you can avoid so doing.

Never make a noise in eating. To munch or smack the lips are vulgar faults.

Sit quietly at table, avoid stiffness, but, at the same time, be careful that you do not annoy others by your restlessness.

Do not eat so fast as to be done long before others, nor so slowly as to keep them waiting.

When the finger-glasses are passed round, dip the ends of your fingers into them, and wipe them upon your napkin; then do not fold your napkin, but place it beside your plate upon the table.

To carry away fruit or bonbons from the table is a sign of low breeding.

Rise with the other ladies when your hostess gives the signal.

After returning to the parlor, remain in the house at least an hour after dinner is over. If you have another engagement in the evening, you may then take your leave, but not before. You will insult your hostess by leaving sooner, as it appears that you came only for the dinner, and that being over, your interest in the house, for the time, has ceased. It is only beggars who "eat and run!"

Sunday, September 7, 2014

Sunday Supper ~ Dinner for 18 Persons – September

From Mrs Beeton's Household Management

First Course.
                      Julienne Soup,
                       removed by
                  Brill and Shrimp Sauce.
  Red Mullet & Vase of Fried Eels.
  Italian Sauce. Flowers.
                       Giblet Soup,
                        removed by
                 Salmon and Lobster Sauce.


                    Lamb Cutlets and
                      French Beans.
  Fillets of Chicken Vase of Oysters au gratin.
    and Truffles. Flowers.
                    Sweetbreads and
                     Tomata Sauce.

Second Course.

Saddle of Mutton.
Veal-and-Ham Pie.
  Chickens à la Vase of Braised Goose.
   Béchamel. Flowers.
                Broiled Ham, garnished
                  with Cauliflowers.
Filet of Veal.

Third Course.

Custards. Partridges, Apple Tart. removed by Plum-pudding.
Compôte of Greengages.
  Noyeau Jelly. Vase of Lemon Cream.
Pastry Sandwiches.
                  Grouse & Bread Sauce,
                       removed by
  Plum Tart. Nesselrode Pudding. Custards.


Saturday, September 6, 2014

Stitches on Saturday ~ EMBROIDERY PATTERNS - Part Two

From Mrs Beetons Book of Needlework

135.--Pattern for Collars and Cuffs in Embroidery.

Materials: Muslin, cambric or lawn; Messrs. Walter Evans and Co.'s embroidery cotton perfectionné No. 40.

Work the outer circle in long even scallops (see page 90 of Embroidery Instructions) in raised button-hole stitch; the spray of flowers is embroidered in raised satin stitch, the leaves in the same, and the rosebud calyx in tiny eyelet-holes. The centres of the roses are embroidered in open-work.

Embroidery Pattern for Collars, Cuffs, &c.

136.--Cravat End in Embroidery.

Materials: Muslin, Brussels net; Messrs. Walter Evans and Co.'s embroidery cotton No. 30.

Tack the traced muslin over the net and work the scallop of the inner edge; next the design in the centre must be worked in raised satin stitch (see No. 77 in Embroidery Instructions). The raised dots are also worked in satin stitch (see page 90 of Embroidery Instructions). Lastly, work the outer edging of round scallops and the lines of raised dots, and with a pair of embroidery scissors carefully cut away the muslin from the outer edge and from the leaves of the centre pattern.

Cravat End in Embroidery.

137.--Embroidery Pattern for Collars, Cuffs, &c.

Materials: Linen; Messrs. Walter Evans and Co.'s cotton perfectionné No. 40.

This pretty star should be worked in fine overcast stitch (see No. 68 in Embroidery Instructions). The centre is worked in raised satin stitch leaves round a circle of button-hole stitch, in the middle of which a wheel is worked thus:--Slip the cotton under the thick edge and fasten it, then cross it over and back so as to make 8 bars, then twist the cotton twice round 1 bar; this will bring it to the centre; work over and under each of the bars until a thick dot is formed; fasten the cotton beneath this, and twist it twice round the bar opposite to the first one you worked, and finish off.

Embroidery Pattern for Collars, Cuffs, &c.

138.--Embroidery Covering for a Quilted Counterpane.

Materials: Cashmere, cambric muslin, or linen; Messrs. Walter Evans and Co.'s embroidery cotton No. 4.
Embroidery Covering for a Quilted Counterpane.

This is an embroidery-pattern for a woollen or silk quilted counterpane. Such counterpanes generally have a lining which is turned back on the right side, and buttoned down at the point of each scallop. The pattern is a quilted counterpane of scarlet cashmere; the lining is of fine linen. Before embroidering it, make the points for the corners. The embroidery is worked in button-hole stitch, overcast, satin, and ladder stitch. It can also be worked on fine cambric or muslin, and then the embroidered pattern sewn on the piece of linen which forms the cover on the wrong side. Make the button-holes as seen on illustration, and sew on mother-of-pearl or china buttons.

Embroidery Pattern for Cravat Ends, &c.

139.--Embroidery Pattern for Ornamenting Collars, Cuffs, &c.

Materials: Muslin, cambric, or linen; Messrs. Walter Evans and Co.'s embroidery cotton No. 40.

This pattern is worked in satin stitch, point Russe, and point d'or on muslin, cambric, or linen; it is suitable for collars, or cravat ends, or handkerchief corners.

140.--Handkerchief in Embroidery

Materials: French cambric; Messrs. Walter Evans and Co.'s embroidery cotton No. 50.

Handkerchief in Embroidery.

Three rows of hem-stitching ornament this handkerchief; the pattern forms an insertion within the outer rows, the flowers are worked in raised satin stitch, with eyelet-hole centres (see No. 87 of Embroidery Instructions); the tendrils are worked in overcast stitch; three rows of raised dots, in groups of four, are worked on the inner side of the last row of hem-stitching. This pattern looks very handsome on a broad-hemmed handkerchief.

Friday, September 5, 2014

Friday's Fashion ~ Ackermann 1810 - Part 2

Ackermann's Fashion Plates 1810

Evening Dress - Fashion Plate 4

Carriage Dress - Fashion Plate 5

Evening or Full Dress - Fashion Plate 10

Opera Dress - Fashion Plate 11

Ball Dress - Fashion Plate 17

Morning Dress - Fashion Plate 18

Evening or Opera Dress - Fashion Plate 25

Gentleman Full Dress - Fashion Plate 26

Walking Dress - Fashion Plates 31

Promenade Dress - Fashion Plate 32

Walking Dress - Fashion Plate 37

Evening or Full Dress - Fashion Plate 38

Thursday, September 4, 2014

Things Worth Knowing ~ Occupations - Part 13

X, Y & Z Lists of Occupations

This is a list of some occupations of which many are archaic although surnames usually originated from someone's occupation.

◦XYLOGRAPHER - one who used and made wooden blocks used in printing illustrations

◦YARDMAN - rail road yard worker

◦YATMAN - gate keeper

◦YEARMAN - one contracted to work for a year

◦YEOMAN - farmer who owns his own land

◦ZINCOGRAPHER - designer who etched in relief a pattern on zinc plates used for printing

◦ZITHERIST - player of a simple, flat many-stringed instrument

◦ZOETROPE MAKER - craftsman who made zoetropes, an optical toy in the form of a cylinder with a series of pictures painted on the inner surface which gave the impression of continuous motion when viewed through slits in the rotating cylinder

◦ZOOGRAPHER - described and classified

Wednesday, September 3, 2014

Words on Wednesday ~ Unfamiliar words

The Handy Cyclopedia of Things Worth Knowing - A Manual of Ready Reference

Author: Joseph Triemens

Aperients - Laxative.

 Averment - Assert formally as a fact.

 Biliousness - Peevish; irritable; cranky; extremely unpleasant or distasteful.

 bill of attainder - Legislative determination imposing punishment without trial.

 Bodkin - Small, sharply pointed instrument to make holes in fabric or leather.

 Carnelian - Pale to deep red or reddish-brown.

 Catarrhal - Inflammation of a mucous membrane, especially of the respiratory tract, accompanied by excessive secretions.

 cholera morbus - Acute gastroenteritis occurring in summer and autumn; symptoms are severe cramps, diarrhea, and vomiting.

 Conspectus - General or comprehensive view; survey; digest; summary.

 Copperas - Ferrous sulfate.

 Cumulation - Accumulation, heap, mass.

 Diathesis - Constitutional predisposition.

 Disseised - Dispossess unlawfully or unjustly; oust.

 emercement (amercement) - Fine not fixed by law; inflicting an arbitrary penalty.

 Emoluments - Payment for an office or employment; compensation.

 Erebus - Greek Mythology;  the dark region of the underworld through which the dead must pass before they reach Hades.

 Erraticism - Deviating from the usual conduct or opinion; eccentric; queer.

 Histologist - One who does anatomical studies of the microscopic structure of animal and plant tissues.

 Impecuniosity - Having little or no money; penniless; poor.

 Indurated - Hardened; obstinate; unfeeling.

 Inheres - Inherent or innate.

 Intendent - Title of various government officials or administrators.

 Irondequoit - Town of western New York on Lake Ontario and Irondequoit Bay, near    Rochester.

 Lees - Sediment settling during fermentation, especially wine; dregs.

 Luxation - Displacement or misalignment of a joint or organ.

 Marque (letter of) - Commission granted by a state to a private citizen to capture and    confiscate the merchant ships of another nation.

 Meerschaum - Fine, compact, usually white clay-like mineral of hydrous magnesium silicate, H4Mg2Si3O10, used for tobacco pipes, building stone and - ornamental carvings. Also called sepiolite.

 Orfila - Mathieu Orfila (1787-1853). Chemist, founder of toxicology.

 Pearlash - Potassium carbonate.

 Prosody - Study of the metrical structure of verse.

 Prussian blue - Dark blue crystalline hydrated compound, Fe4[Fe(CN)6]3.xH2O; ferric

 Putrescibles - Liable to decay or spoil or become putrid.

 Quassia - Shrub or small tree of tropical America, Quassia amara. Prepared form of the heartwood, used as an insecticide and in medicine as a tonic to dispel intestinal worms

 quoits - Game; player throws rings of rope or flattened metal at an upright peg, attempting to encircle it or come as close to it as possible.

 rotten stone - Porous, lightweight, siliceous sedimentary rock; shells of diatoms or
   radiolarians or of finely weathered chert, used as an abrasive and a polish.

 Saltpetre - Potassium nitrate, KNO3.

 Sciatica - Pain extending from the hip down the back of the thigh and surrounding

 Spatulate - Shaped like a spatula; rounded like a spoon.

 Sustension - Sustaining.

 Tete d'armee - Head of Army.

 Theine - Caffeine.

 Towardliness - Apt to learn; promising; docile; tractable; propitious; seasonable.

Tuesday, September 2, 2014


From Mrs Wilson's Cookbook

Bread, the staff of life, must be palatable and good if we are to be satisfied with it when we eat.
Can you think of anything that will spoil a meal more quickly than poor, over moist, doughy or heavy bread?

Bread may truly be called the staff of life, as it will maintain life longer than any other single food.
Yet many women think bread-making is a simple task; that the ingredients can be thrown together helter-skelter and good results obtained; or that any kind of flour will make good bread. This is a great mistake. To make good palatable bread it requires good materials, a reasonable amount of care and attention. But first of all must come the knowledge of the flour.

A good blend of hard winter flour is necessary and it can easily be tested by pressing a small quantity of it in the hand; if the flour is good, it will retain the shape of the hand. Graham or whole wheat flour and rye flours can be used for variety and to advantage in making bread.

Other cereal flours do not contain gluten to allow them to be used alone for making the yeast-raised breads. Keep this in mind and thus prevent failures. The yeast is a single-cell plant and must be given the proper temperature, moisture and food for its successful growth. When this is supplied, each little cell multiples a thousand times, thus pushing and stretching the dough. This makes it rise or become light.
When the yeast cells have absorbed or consumed all the food that they can obtain from the sugar, flour, etc., the dough will recede or fall. Now, if the dough is carefully handled at a given time, this will not take place, and so for this reason the dough is permitted to stand only for a given length of time before it is worked and then placed in the pans.

Few utensils will be required for making bread, but they must be scrupulously clean, if the bread is to have a good flavor. Potatoes and other cooked cereals may be used with good results. Compressed yeast will give the best results, and either the sponge or straight dough method may be used.

Bread made by the sponge method will require a longer time to make than the bread that is made by the straight dough method. Sponge dough consists of setting the sponge and letting it rise until it drops back, usually in two and one-half hours, and then adding sufficient flour to make a dough that can easily be handled.

The straight dough method consists of making a dough at the start. To make bread successfully, do not set the dough over the range, do not set it on the radiators and do not place it where it will be in a draft, to rise. Cold chills the dough and retards the yeast. Yeast grows successfully only in a warm moist temperature from 80 to 85 degrees Fahrenheit.
I would like to tell the housewife about a dough box that I have found to work very successfully. The baker's success in making bread is founded on the fact that he can regulate the temperature of his shop and thus prevent drafts from chilling the dough. This box is just an ordinary cracker box with the lid hinged on it. It is then lined with thick asbestos paper on the inside and then covered with oilcloth on the outside. The  bowl with the dough is then placed in the box to retain its temperature and to be free from drafts while it rises. In cold weather this box can be heated by placing a warm iron in it when starting to mix the dough, and then removing the iron before placing the dough in the box. This box will easily pay for the time and cost in a few weeks, and then, too, it will prevent failure.

Now to get the proper temperature—always use a thermometer. Remember that you cannot successfully gauge the correct temperature of liquids that are used for making bread by testing with the finger or by testing them from the spoon. Any plain thermometer that can be found in the house will do for this work. Scrub it with soda and water to remove the paint. Remember, in cold weather to heat the mixing bowl. See that the flour is not lower than 65 degrees Fahrenheit.

All water or half water and milk may be used in making bread. When the milk is used it must be scalded and then allowed to cool. Evaporated or condensed milk does not require scalding. Simply add the hot water to acquire the proper temperature.
Earthen mixing bowls or clean cedar pails make the best utensils to set the bread dough in. These utensils will retain the heat and are easy to clean, and when they are closely covered, prevent a hard crust from forming on the dough.

Do not fail to give the dough plenty of proof—that is, let it rise for a sufficient length of time as given in the recipes.

Use a good grade of blended flour.

Use the ball of the hand, near the wrist, to knead and work the dough. Kneading is most important and should be thoroughly done. Do not be afraid of hurting the dough; you can handle it as roughly as you like. Heavy, active kneading distributes the yeast organisms and develops the elasticity of the gluten and gives body and strength to the dough.

Now, a word about the baking. Bread is baked to kill the fermentation and to hold the glutinous walls of the dough in place and to cook the starch and thus make it palatable and easy to digest.
An oven 350 degrees Fahrenheit is necessary. Do not have it any hotter than this. Too much heat browns the loaf before it has time to bake in the centre.
Salt controls the action of the yeast. It also retards or delays the proper fermentation if too large an amount of it is used. Then again, if not enough salt is added to the mix, the yeast becomes too active and thus produces an overlight loaf of bread. One ounce of salt to each quart of liquid in summer, and three-fourths of an ounce in winter will give the best results to the home baker.
Now turn on a moulding board and cut into five parts or loaves. Allow about nineteen ounces to each loaf. Take the dough up between the hands and work into a round ball. Place on the moulding board and cover for ten minutes. Now with the palm of the hand flatten out the dough and then fold halfway over, pounding well with the hand. Now, take the dough between the hands and stretch out, knocking it against the moulding board, fold in the ends and shape into loaves. Place in well-greased pans and brush the top of each loaf with shortening. Cover and let raise for 45 minutes. Bake in a hot oven for 45 minutes and brush with shortening when removing from the oven. Let cool and then the bread is ready to use.
Generally speaking, the sponge method produces a lighter and whiter loaf than the bread made by the straight dough method. Bread made by the straight dough method has the advantage over bread made by the sponge method in flavor, texture and keeping qualities.
One quart of water or half water and half milk, 80 degrees Fahrenheit, Two yeast cakes, Two and one-half quarts or two and one-half pounds of flour, One ounce of sugar.

Dissolve the sugar and yeast in the water and add the flour. Beat to thoroughly blend and then set aside to raise for three hours, then add One ounce of salt, One and one-half ounces of shortening, One and one-half quarts or one and one-half pounds of flour.

Work to a smooth elastic dough. This takes usually about ten minutes, after the flour is worked into the dough. Place in a greased bowl and then turn over the dough to coat with shortening. This prevents a crust from forming on the dough. Set aside to raise for two hours and then pull the sides down to the centre of the dough and punch down. Turn the dough over and let raise for one and one-quarter hours.
The jar, crock or box in which the bread is kept should be scrupulously clean. It should be scalded and aired one day every week in winter and three times weekly during the spring, summer and early fall. Keep the fact in mind that the bread kept in a poorly ventilated box will mould and spoil and thus be unfit for food.

Place the freshly baked bread on a wire rack to thoroughly cool before storing. Do not put old bread in the box with the new baking. Plan to use the stale bread for toast, dressings, bread and cabinet puddings, croutons and crumbs.
Wheat contains the sixteen needed elements for nutrition, and when made into palatable bread, it forms about 40 per cent. of our total food requirements. Stale bread digests much easier than fresh bread for the reason that when thoroughly masticated in the mouth the saliva acts directly upon the starchy content. Fresh bread, unless thoroughly chewed, so that it may be well broken up, becomes a hard, pasty ball in the stomach, which requires that organ to manufacture the additional gastric juices to break up this dough ball.

Bread from one to three days old easily digests. Graham and whole wheat breads contain a larger percentage of nutriment than the white breads.
Many housewives feel that it is impossible to secure accurate results in baking in the gas range; this is due to the fact that few women really understand the principle of baking with gas.

To secure a slow oven, light both burners and let them burn for five minutes; then turn both of them down low, turning the handle that controls the flow of gas two-thirds off. This will maintain a steady even heat. A slow oven requires 250 to 275 degrees Fahrenheit of heat. A moderate oven is 350 to 375 degrees Fahrenheit of heat. It can be obtained by burning both burners of gas range for eight minutes and then turning them down one-half to maintain this heat.

A hot oven requires 425 to 450 degrees Fahrenheit and will need to have the burners burning twelve minutes and then turned off one-quarter.

This heat is intense and entirely too hot for breads, pastries and cakes. Meats require this heat for one-half of the length of time in the period of cooking. This heat is also necessary for broiling, grilling, etc.
Now, also try to utilize the full oven space when baking by cooking two or more dishes at the same time. Vegetables may be placed in casseroles or earthen dishes or even ordinary saucepans; cover them closely and cook in the oven until tender. This will not injure other foods baking in the oven.

Do not place breads, cakes and pastries upon the top shelf; rather, place them on the lower shelf and cook in moderate oven. Do you know that there are still among us women who firmly believe that placing other foods to cook in oven with cake will surely spoil it? This is a mistake; utilize every bit of oven space.

An oven thermometer soon pays for itself. Pay strict attention to heating the oven; if the oven is too hot, the heat is wasted, while it cools sufficiently. This wastes gas. When food is first placed in the oven, keep oven door closed for first ten minutes and then open when necessary.

Placing food in oven will materially reduce the heat. Do not try to increase the heat; just as soon as the mixture acquires the heat, the baking will begin in the usual manner and the dish will be ready to remove from oven in given time.

Never keep the oven waiting for the food; rather let food remain in cool place while oven is heating.
Before mixing materials select the pans that will best fit the oven. This does not mean that you must discard your present equipment. It means that you should place in groups such pans that entirely fill oven space without crowding. Keep this fact in mind when purchasing new utensils.

The best and whitest rye flour is milled from the centre of the grains in a manner similar to wheat flour. When only the bran is removed from the milling, we have the darker flour, carrying a heavy pronounced flavor. The rye meal is used for making pumpernickel, a Swiss and Swedish rye flour bread.
Wash four potatoes and then cut in slices, without peeling, and place in saucepan, and add three pints of water. Cook until the potatoes are soft and then add One-half cupful of hops.
Cook slowly for one-half hour. Rub the mixture through a fine sieve and then pour hot mixture on
One and one-half cupfuls of flour, One tablespoonful of salt, One-quarter cupful of brown sugar.

Stir until well mixed, beating free from lumps. Cool to 80 degrees Fahrenheit. Now add
One yeast cake dissolved in one cupful of water, 80 degrees Fahrenheit

Stir well to mix and then let ferment in a warm place for ten hours. Now pour into jar or crock and store in a cool place.
Use one and one-half cups of this mixture in place of the yeast cake. Always stir well before using and take care that the mixture does not freeze. This potato ferment must be made fresh every eighteen days in winter and every twelve days in summer.

Monday, September 1, 2014

Manners on Monday ~ Gentlemen - ETIQUETTE IN CHURCH.

True to word - From -The Gentlemen's Book of Etiquette and Manual of Politeness by Cecil B. Hartley

It is not, in this book, a question, what you must believe, but how you must act. If your conscience permits you to visit other churches than your own, your first duty, whilst in them, is not to sneer or scoff at any of its forms, and to follow the service as closely as you can.

To remove your hat upon entering the edifice devoted to the worship of a Higher Power, is a sign of respect never to be omitted. Many men will omit in foreign churches this custom so expressive and touching, and by the omission make others believe them irreverent and foolish, even though they may act from mere thoughtlessness. If, however, you are in a country where the head is kept covered, and another form of humility adopted, you need not fear to follow the custom of those around you. You will be more respected if you pay deference to their religious views, than if you undertook to prove your superiority by affecting a contempt for any form of worship. Enter with your thoughts fixed upon high and holy subjects, and your face will show your devotion, even if you are ignorant of the forms of that particular church.

If you are with a lady, in a catholic church, offer her the holy water with your hand ungloved, for, as it is in the intercourse with princes, that church requires all the ceremonies to be performed with the bare hand.
Pass up the aisle with your companion until you reach the pew you are to occupy, then step before her, open the door, and hold it open while she enters the pew. Then follow her, closing the door after you.
If you are visiting a strange church, request the sexton to give you a seat. Never enter a pew uninvited. If you are in your own pew in church, and see strangers looking for a place, open your pew door, invite them by a motion to enter, and hold the door open for them, re-entering yourself after they are seated.

If others around you do not pay what you think a proper attention to the services, do not, by scornful glances or whispered remarks, notice their omissions. Strive, by your own devotion, to forget those near you.
You may offer a book or fan to a stranger near you, if unprovided themselves, whether they be young or old, lady or gentleman.

Remain kneeling as long as those around you do so. Do not, if your own devotion is not satisfied by your attitude, throw scornful glances upon those who remain seated, or merely bow their heads. Above all never sign to them, or speak, reminding them of the position most suitable for the service. Keep your own position, but do not think you have the right to dictate to others. I have heard young persons addressing, with words of reproach, old men, and lame ones, whose infirmities forbade them to kneel or stand in church, but who were, doubtless, as good Christians as their presumptuous advisers. I know that it often is an effort to remain silent when those in another pew talk incessantly in a low tone or whisper, or sing in a loud tone, out of all time or tune, or read the wrong responses in a voice of thunder; but, while you carefully avoid such faults yourself, you must pass them over in others, without remark.

If, when abroad, you visit a church to see the pictures or monuments within its walls, and not for worship, choose the hours when there is no service being read. Even if you are alone, or merely with a guide, speak low, walk slowly, and keep an air of quiet respect in the edifice devoted to the service of God.
Let me here protest against an Americanism of which modest ladies justly complain; it is that of gentlemen standing in groups round the doors of churches both before and after service. A well-bred man will not indulge in this practice; and, if detained upon the step by a friend, or, whilst waiting for another person, he will stand aside and allow plenty of room for others to pass in, and will never bring the blood into a woman’s face by a long, curious stare.

In church, as in every other position in life, the most unselfish man is the most perfect gentleman; so, if you wish to retain your position as a well-bred man, you will, in a crowded church, offer your seat to any lady, or old man, who may be standing.